B. Overcoming barriers to effective interpersonal communication.1 Use feedback; Feedback can be verbal or non-verbal, or both.2. Simplify language.a. The manager must take into account the characteristics of the intended audience and send the message to the recipient.b. The sender should remember that comprehension is improved if they use a language familiar to the recipient.3. Actively listen.a. When listening, two people are concerned about the thought: the receiver as well as the sender. Listening is an active search for meaning.b. Active listening means listening to all meaning without making hasty judgments or interpretations.c. Active listening is enhanced by developing empathy with the sender who is in the sender`s position.
Figure 15-3 lists the additional behaviors demonstrated by active headphones. 4. Limit emotions. A manager should make an effort to refrain from communicating until he or she has calmed down again. 5. Pay attention to non-verbal cues. Actions speak louder than words, so the sender must ensure that their actions are consistent with the verbal message and reinforce it. 15.4 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION A. Formal or informal communication 1. Formal communication is communication that follows the official chain of command or is necessary for the job. 2. Informal communication is communication that is not defined by the structural hierarchy of the organization.
One. Informal communication systems allow employees to satisfy their need for social interaction. Informal communication systems can improve a company`s performance by creating alternative and often faster and more efficient communication channels. B. Direction of the communication flow 1. Top-down communication is communication that descends from a manager to the employee. It is used to inform, guide, coordinate and evaluate employees. 2.
Bottom-up communication is communication that flows upwards from employees to managers. One. Bottom-up communication can be used to keep managers clear about how employees think about their work, their colleagues, and the organization in general. b. Organizational culture influences the level of bottom-up communication. A climate of trust, respect and participatory decision-making encourages a high level of bottom-up communication. A highly mechanistic and authoritarian environment severely restricts bottom-up communication stylistically and in terms of content. 3. Lateral communication is communication that takes place between all employees at the same level of organization. .